Agricultural Policy for Nigeria

Agricultural Policy for Nigeria

INTRODUCTION

Before the decade of the 1960s, the dominant role of agriculture in Nigeria’s economy was taken for granted. With very little support from government, Nigerian
agriculture was able to grow at a sufficient rate to provide adequate food for an increasing population, raw materials for a budding industrial sector, increasing public revenue and foreign exchange for government and employment opportunities for an expanding labour force. The little support provided by government for agricultural development was concentrated on export crops like cocoa, groundnut, palm produce, rubber and cotton as self-sufficiency in food production seemed not to pose any problem worthy of public attention.
Indications of problems in the Nigerian agriculture, however, started to emerge as from the first decade of the country’s independence (1960 – 69). These indications were clearly evident from increasing food supply short-falls, rising food prices and declining foreign exchange earnings from agricultural exports. However, not much rational concern was shown because the problems were thought to be the temporary effects of a series of crises which eventually culminated in the civil war (1967 – 70).
The second decade of Nigeria’s independence (1970 – 79) witnessed a rapid deterioration in the country’s agricultural situation. Not only were there widening food supply-demand gaps and rising food import bills, there were also rapid declines in government revenue from agriculture, in foreign exchange earnings from agricultural exports and in the labour force required in agriculture. The situation was further compounded by the residual effects of the civil war, severe droughts in some parts of the country, government fiscal and monetary policies and above all, an “oil boom” which created serious distortions in the economy and accelerated the rate of migration of labour from agriculture.

In an effort to tackle these serious problems, government initiated a number of agricultural policies, programmes and projects, largely within the framework of three successive rational development plans from 1970 to 1974, from 1975 to 1980 and from 1981 to 1985. Experience from these policies, programmes and projects have however, convinced the government and all those concerned with agricultural development efforts in Nigeria that there is no alternative to well-designed and articulate agricultural policies as instruments for promoting agricultural growth and development in Nigeria.
It is therefore, in realization of this fact that the government has adopted a comprehensive package of policy instruments to further develop and improve the5 performance of the country’s agricultural sector. These policy instruments are expected to remain valid for about fifteen years that is up to year 2000 A.D.

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Diversifying Farming through An Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture System

Diversifying Farming through An Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture System

DIVERSIFYING FARMING THROUGH AN INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE-AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

Integrating fish into rice farming is a diversification strategy that can lead to maximized productivity, increased incomes and improvements in food security and nutrition for rice growing communities. This practice of combining aquaculture and agriculture is widespread in parts of Asia; however, in other areas of the world, farmers lack the technical skills and inputs to implement it.

This project concentrated its efforts in Nigeria, which could benefit significantly from farm diversification to combat its high prevalence of undernutrition and undernourishment. The project design included elements to address the issues inhibiting the integration of aquaculture and agriculture in the country, and to develop templates, technological packages and adaptation and mitigation measures for potential challenges to the establishment of the system.
At its core, the project sought to refine the aquaculture-agriculture farm diversification methodology to suit agroecosystems and socioeconomic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, and possibly other regions beyond Asia, with the ultimate aim of scaling up the benefits of this practice globally.

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National Climate Change Policy for Nigeria

National Climate Change Policy for Nigeria

INTRODUCTION

Nigeria, like many parts of the world, is experiencing climate change. In particular, the country is becoming warmer. Various studies show that annual and seasonal timescales indicate a significant positive increase in temperatures in Nigeria. They show that mean temperatures have been consistently increasing throughout the country in the last five decades and have been rising significantly since the 1980s, with a change of 1.01°C (0.52 to 1.5°C) in the linear warming for the period 1951 – 2005. The linear warming for the same period for 30-year averages on a decadal slice further revealed positive changes in temperature by an average of 0.2°C/decade.

The mean annual variability and trend of rainfall over Nigeria in the last few decades depict the existence of a number of inter-annual fluctuations that have been responsible for dry and wet years or extreme climate events such as droughts and floods in many parts of the country and at different times.
The year More worrisome is the increasing knowledge that the country will be subject to consistent changes in rainfall and temperature conditions, particularly towards the end of the century. Recent analysis of anticipated future climatic trends for the country, as captured in the Third National Communication, indicates that for 2050 and 2070, the minimum temperature increase could range from 1.48°C to 1.78°C and the maximum temperature increase of about +3.08°C to +3.48°C compared to the baseline of 1990. A general increase in the number of days of rain and days with extreme rainfall events that may generate floods are projected over most ecological zones of the country except in the northeast Sahel zone, where the scenario analysis suggests fewer extreme events related to rainfall and flooding.

Climate change is a complex environmental problem because of its long-term uncertain time- frame, scales of occurrence, differential impacts and vulnerabilities, as well as equity and justice within the global power asymmetries. For instance, the impacts of climate change are already driving people back into poverty and undermining growth. Beyond recognizing the potential devastating effects of climate change on the socio-economic and environmental development of the country and implications for the well-being of the populace, the Government of Nigeria intends to strengthen its management of climate-related development challenges through an appropriate policy and institutional arrangements that will not only mainstream climate change into its development priorities, but also encourage the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions at all levels of governance for climate compatible sustainable development.

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National Agricultural Technology and Innovation Policy (NATIP)

National Agricultural Technology and Innovation Policy (NATIP)

Introduction

The important goal of every nation is to attain food security. Over the years, Nigeria has made concerted efforts and developed several agricultural development policies to achieve food security, inclusive growth, sustainable economic diversification and wealth creation. The outcomes of the policies and strategies implemented are mixed. While substantial progress has been recorded, particularly in the production of millet, sorghum, maize, cassava, rice, yam, cowpeas, oil palm and poultry, the country still imports wheat, maize, rice, sugar, fish, beef and dairy products. Also, the share of the agricultural output is dominated by crop production representing 85% while other sub-sectors such as livestock, fisheries and aquaculture and forestry accounted for only 15% (NBS, 2020).
The strategic importance of the agricultural sector to the Nigerian economy cannot be over-emphasized. Its contribution to GDP hovered between 24.45% in 2016 and 25.70% in 2020 (NBS, 2021). The potential of agriculture to rapidly help in achieving food security and economic diversification remains largely untapped. The sector is essentially subsistent with small farm holdings, inadequate cooperative groups, limited technology adoption, low application of good agricultural practices, low access to quality inputs, finance and market. Other constraints include ineffectual synergy among MDAs, poor cooperation among agricultural research and training institutions, input providers and farmers; limited extension services delivery, inadequate rural infrastructure, climate change, poor nutrition, underdeveloped rangelands and grazing reserves; insecurity of agricultural land and investments; insufficient value addition and inadequate agro- industrial processing facilities; lack of standardization of agricultural inputs and outputs as well as outbreaks of Trans-boundary Animal Diseases (TADs).
As the country was charting a new roadmap to scale up the successes of the previous policies to overcome constraints to agriculture, the COVID-19 pandemic struck at the core of its productive sectors. The pandemic disrupted global and domestic socio-economic activities with the agricultural sector severely affected through the shutdown of production facilities and the restrictions on the movements of people and goods. The Committee on World Food Security postulated that the pandemic
would directly impact global food supply and demand, and indirectly reduce production capacity and purchasing power. FAO however predicted that food scarcity is not imminent in post-COVID-19, unlike in the 2007-2008 global food crisis.

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Resilience Building In Nigeria FAO PROGRAMME REVIEW (2024)

Resilience Building In Nigeria FAO PROGRAMME REVIEW (2024)

Resilience Building In Nigeria FAO PROGRAMME REVIEW (2024)

PURPOSE:

This document reflects an analysis of ongoing FAO Nigeria resilience building interventions and how they contribute towards the five capacities for resilience building, namely:

• PREVENTIVE: reduce existing and future risks.
• ANTICIPATIVE: act early.
• ABSORPTIVE: the ability to bounce back, overwhelmingly humanitarian (emergency response).
• ADAPTIVE: incremental adjustments.
• TRANSFORMATIVE: make fundamental changes to the system.

The five capacity areas are in most cases overlapping dur- ing specific project implementation, with the classification based on the overarching resilience capacity area.
his review comes at a time when FAO seeks to review its Resilience work in Sub Saharan Africa with the overall objective to systematically capture, document, and dis- seminate insights and best practices related to resilience building within FAO programmes for scaling up. This is intended to facilitate and harness the opportunities, and lessons learned in emergency and resilience program- ming, and integration of emergency, resilience, and de- velopment work into the priorities of Member States.
The initiative is in view of the increasing number of food and nutrition insecure people in Africa, with the Prevalence of Undernourishment (PoU) rising from 19.4 percent in 2021 to 19.7 percent in 2022, and the number of people facing hunger increasing by 11 million people since 2021 and by more than 57 million people since the outbreak of the COV- ID-19 pandemic. A much larger proportion of the population in Africa faces hunger compared to the other regions of the world – nearly 20 percent compared with 8.5 percent in Asia, 6.5 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 7.0 per- cent in Oceania.1 According to the region’s most recent economic update, growth in Sub-Saharan Africa was pro- jected to dip to 2.5 percent in 2023, down from 3.6 percent in 2022. Rising conflict and violence across the region ex- ert a dampening effect on economic activity, with climate shocks poised to exacerbate this fragility. About 462 mil- lion people in the region are still living in extreme pover- ty in 2023 even as growth remains uneven across the continent. While East Africa was set to record a growth rate of 1.8 percent in 2023, West Africa was expected to grow at a rate of 3.3 percent during the same year. Harnessing the potential of natural resources provides an opportuni- ty to improve the fiscal and debt sustainability of African countries. It is envisaged that if Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can harness its natural resource wealth (oil, gas, and minerals), it can sustainably transform economically and create more job opportunities while transitioning into a low-carbon economy.

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